Tropical Storm BERTHA Discussion Number 1

NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
1100 PM AST THU JUL 31 2014

Reports from an Air Force Reserve reconnaissance aircraft earlier
this afternoon and evening indicated that the well-defined low
pressure system located about 250 nmi east-southeast of Barbados had
surface winds of about 40 kt north and northeast of the center.
Since the departure of the aircraft, a band of deep convection has
developed near and to the north and east of the low-level center,
and now has enough organization to consider this system a tropical
cyclone.

The initial motion estimate is 290/17 kt. Bertha is moving along
the southern periphery of a strong subtropical ridge located to the
north based on earlier dropsonde data obtained by a NOAA
Gulfstream-IV jet aircraft. The NHC model guidance is in excellent
agreement on the cyclone maintaining a general west-northwestward
motion for the next 48 hours or so, followed by a gradual turn
toward the northwest after that through 96 hours. By Day 5, Bertha
is expected to turn northward as it moves around the western portion
of the ridge. The official forecast track is similar to but slightly
north of the consensus model, TVCA.

The environment surrounding Bertha is not particularly favorable
for significant strengthening during the next two days due
to modest westerly shear and limited mid-level moisture. However,
the cyclone will be moving over increasing SSTs and within an
upper-level atmosphere that is slightly cooler than normal. The
resultant increase in instability could allow for some slight
strengthening to occur before Bertha interacts with Puerto Rico
and eastern Hispaniola in about 48 hours or so. After the cyclone
clears land, some slight re-strengthening is possible based on the
SHIPS model indicating that the vertical shear decreasing to less
than 10 kt and SSTs increasing to near 29C. The NHC intensity
forecast is similar to the consensus model ICON.

http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/text/refresh/MIATCDAT3+shtml/010321.shtml

http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20142907-25941.html


astrodidact:

Obsessed. Follow along! Lyrics for the whole family to enjoy!!

Fallujah - The Flesh Prevails [Full Album]

1. Starlit Path

Do you watch us in the dark?
Do you see us in the night?
We walk in the night
Our starlights aligned

Gathering, faith inside
The fear inside your bones reclaims its grasp
My ignited stars align
Illuminate the path that leads you back
Back into my hands

We know your thoughts
The fear awakes us at night
All things can be rebuilt with time

Is all you want, to be alone?

In the forest & the cold
The night awaits your soul
I know you want to be alone
The night awaits your soul

The forest awaits
It’s calling out your name
Our starlights aligned
We’ll breathe the air tonight
& see the sun rise

2. Carved From Stone(5:26)

Drenched in sweat & caged in the steel
Fall from grace temptress surreal
Skin carved from stone
The lust inside her bones

A damsel so content
The child of excess
Her skin in my control
Ignited all alone

As helpless as vermin swallowed whole
The pain ignites her
& every desperate lustful bone
[2x]

Hold your tongue
You’re mine tonight
Your flesh & blood are
My prize

Skin carved from stone [4x]

I’ll control you if you like
Does it make you feel alive?
Does it numb the pain inside?
Does it make you feel alive?

I’ll control you if you like
Does it make you feel alive?
[2x]

Skin carved from stone [4x]

3. The Night Reveals(9:50)

My day & night have coalesced
Each time the same as the last
My fears personified here
As testament of recklessness
Tainted soul regained in whole
In comatose I lose control

Brace for, all those nights you dream of death
Brace for, those dreams you will regret

Comatose embracing me
Each thought frozen in breath
My shame exemplified
A testament of self-contempt
I wait for the impulse to fade

As comatose embraces me [2x]

Fate divides, you from the things you love
From, fixation not understood

Brace for, those nights you dream of death
Scars from those nights you now regret

4. The Flesh Prevails(14:08)

Once you were not
Lost or afraid of that which may come
You’re lost
This is real now
You’re weaker now
But you’re alive

This night revealed the things you love
Lost in the path of misunderstood

5. Levitation(17:31)

Drift off out of sight
Out of my mind
No hope
We need more time
I need more time

Scathing, breathing
For too long alone
Dreaming deeply far from hope

Will you levitate with me?
Face to face
Our nerves lost
I fear the nights ends

Nerves lost
Severed from limbs
Fearing daylight
Fearing the nights end
Consume me
Embrace me
Light breaks
White with fear
Pull me up from death
Pull me up to meet my end

Here suspended in air, entwined
Buried souls scathing light
Abandoning words lost to time

I pray for [2x]
Above the surface entwined
Just you & I tonight
Wither away with me tonight
Levitate with me tonight

Scathing, breathing
For too long alone
Dreaming deeply far from hope

Will you?
Nerves lost
Severed from limbs
Fearing daylight
Fearing the nights end
Consume me
Embrace me
Light breaks
White with fear
Pull me up from death
Pull me up to meet my end

Here suspended in air, entwined
Scathing light

8. Sapphire(30:10)

I’ve wanted this all along
A concrete beating heart
A landscape I can bleed up-on
This dark city my breeding ground

Nails within the darkened sand
Artificial light ascends
Clarity of vision breaks
The shackling of days ahead
Taken from the solace of home
Veins reclaimed by hardened stone

Take me from my solace
This dark city’s mine again

I’ve wanted this all along
This dark city [2x]
My breeding ground

The streets are whispering

The hope is in my veins
Clawing & deprived
A hopeful heart will waste
Every moment of precious time

Helpless as I watch my dreams divide

I’ve wanted this all along
A concrete beating heart
A landscape I can bleed upon
This dark city my breeding ground

Artificial light ascends
The path of which my heart accepts

9. Chemical Cave(35:41)

This toxic haze
Dream the night away
This chemical cave stole these nights away from us
& everyone who could pull you through

http://www.darklyrics.com/lyrics/fallujah/thefleshprevails.html

I’ve posted a lot of stuff that has tons of notes, but seeing 50 on this one and the company who reblogged…sooo awesome. But seriously how goddamn good is this album?! Fuckkk. THANK YOU FALLUJAH. Can’t wait to see you guys and Rings of Saturn for the first time next month!!

Tasmania was attached to North America 1.4 billion years ago

A study of prehistoric minerals has revealed Tasmania’s geographical origins.

AntonBalazh_Tasmania_Shutterstock
Image: Anton Balazh/Shutterstock

Two physical scientists from the University of Tasmania and Mineral Resources Tasmania, both in Australia, have analysed sedimentary rocks from the Rocky Cape Group in North West Tasmania and found that the rocks are very similar to those found in the North American states of Montana, Idaho and British Columbia.

Jacqueline Halpin and Peter McGoldrick dated tiny samples of minerals known as monazite and zircon, which are found in the sedimentary rocks from Rocky Cape, and discovered that they are between 1.45 and 1.33 billion years old—this also makes them the oldest known rocks ever found in Tasmania.

According to the scientists, the minerals must have been deposited in an ancient ocean about 1.45 billion to 1.22 billion years ago. Their finding suggests that Tasmania and Western North America were geographical neighbours about 1.4 billion years ago in the supercontinent Nuna, also known as Columbia.

“As plate tectonics and the supercontinents cycle started to rift Nuna apart, a large sedimentary basin formed that included the Rocky Cape and the Belt-Purcell Supergroup rocks,” explained Dr Hapin in a press release.

Because Tasmania’s rocks are different from the ones in mainland Australia, scientists hadn’t been able to pinpoint the exact location of the state during this prehistoric period.

Previous studies had suggested that Tasmania was part of central Australia and drifted apart when the supercontinent Nuna broke, but the new evidence contradicts this theory.

Halpin told the Guardian: “The rocks of Tasmania don’t look like the rest of Australia’s rocks if you look at those more than 700 million years old. The rocks up the east coast of Australian are much younger than in Tasmania. In terms of the geology, Tasmania is much more like North America.”

The mineral dates have also provided important information about the Horodyskia (string of beads) fossils found recently in the Rocky Cape. These fossils are visible to the naked eye, but are rarely found in rocks older than 635 million years, explained the researchers. This finding, however, suggests that the Horodyskia discovered in Tasmania could be twice this age. 

"Unlike stromatolites, which are formed by communities of simple, single-celled organisms, Horodyskia may represent the oldest known ‘tissue-grade’ multi-cellular organism,’ explained McGoldrick.

The results of the study were published in the journal Precambrian Research

http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20142807-25937.html

The skull of an armadillo lizard. via I fucking love science

Image courtesy of Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers

Woot! The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals has struck down Virginia’s ban on same-sex marriage, holding, in a two-one vote, that it is unconstitutional:

http://bit.ly/1qbhXqz via Daily kos

Seriously. I hear Russia is nice this time of year. Dicks.


Watch A Zebrafish Brain As It Thinks And Moves

Researchers from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have developed a novel imaging technique that allows us to peer into the brains of a living zebrafish and witness the activity of almost every single neuron as the organism thinks and moves. And the result is simply mesmerizing.

Published in the journal Nature Methods, researchers describe how the new technique, which has been dubbed light-sheet imaging, allowed them to simultaneously visualize and record the activity of 80% of the neurons within the brain of larval zebrafish. It is hoped that this new technique will allow researchers to study the neural mechanisms of behavior in unparalleled detail.

For the technique, researchers married genetic engineering with optics to observe the firing activity of around 80,000 neurons. The scientists modified the zebrafish so that their neurons expressed a chemical indicator that rapidly fluoresces as the cells fire. Zebrafish are ideal organisms for this kind of study because the larvae are transparent and their brains are small enough to be observed under the microscope.

The researchers then guided laser beams through the fish which caused the neurons to glow. By placing a video camera over the experiments, they were able to record the neuronal activity with incredible detail.

At the start of the experiment, we can see that the forebrain (far right) is twinkling like fireflies. This was when the fish was resting and likely represents the fish’s thoughts at that particular time. Then, activity rapidly sweeps through the brain like wildfire. This corresponds to the moment when researchers created the illusion that the fish was drifting backwards, sparking a wave of activity that resulted in the initiation of swimming.

As mentioned, this exciting technique allowed the researchers to observe around 80% of the neurons in the zebrafish brain in real-time. Furthermore, the researchers are able to identify the neurons that are associated with a particular behavior. Unfortunately, however, it is currently unable to determine the number of times that neurons fire.

While impressive imaging techniques have been developed before, this is the first time that researchers have been able to record and visualize activity in virtually the entire brain whilst an animal is thinking and moving.

Whether information from studies on this model organism can be extrapolated to other vertebrates is unclear at the moment, but scientists are working towards the completion of a brain activity-behavior catalog.  

[Via WiredNature Methods and The Scientist


http://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/watch-zebrafish-brain-it-thinks-and-moves#p7MMqgVx1AtxFxcg.99

The actual number is even more impressive: 99.86%!!

That means it has 700 times the mass of the rest of the Solar System combined: http://bit.ly/1ulxivh via Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics via ScienceAlert

Image: NASA

Dallol in Ethiopia is not only the hottest inhabited place on Earth, it’s also one of the weirdest. Here’s why its volcanic hot springs boast an odd neon glow via ScienceAlert

http://www.sciencealert.com.au/features/20142507-25924.html

A new solution to stop bread from getting mouldy

Scientists have finally found a way to make bread last longer—and the new method replaces chemical preservatives with ingredients sourced from plants.

From the moment that delicious loaf of crispy, hot bread leaves the oven, it interacts with microbes, fungi and yeast in the air—and a few days later, lumps of bluish-green mould appear on its surface.

That’s why packaged bread contains preservatives to extend the shelf life of the product. But Brazilian researchers have found a way to reduce the amount of chemicals put into bread while making it last longer.

Called ‘active packaging’, this alternative adds natural preservatives to the packing material instead of chemicals to the fresh bread. The compounds used in active packaging come from plants such as oregano and clove, which have natural antimicrobial properties.

The team of scientists from the University of Viscosa in Brazil have mixed plants’ essential oils with water, and a thickener derived from plant material and used them to make ‘edible films’. 

The edible films are placed inside the plastic bags used to store bread, and the researchers have found that bread remains mould-free for 15 days at room temperature. 

The results of their studies were published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

The researchers also placed small sachets with oregano essential oils into the bread packaging. In this experiment, they opened the package every five days to test their effectiveness, and found similar results. 

The team explained to Business Insider that “these techniques could be used on a larger scale, on different types of bread. For example, the edible films are great for vacuum-packed food, where the sachets wouldn’t work.” Now they are  applying these films to fruits, meat products, and dairy products to see if they get the same results.

http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20142707-25932.html

via Milky Way Scientists/fb

Damn I love fruit…I’m addicted to red seedless grapes right now.